Text describing a method of inter-trial cleaning of the maze
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Inter-trial apparatus cleaning method text
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Text describing a method of inter-trial cleaning of the maze
Effect of traumatic brain injury on mouse spatial and nonspatial learning in the Barnes circular maze.
Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a relatively new model of traumatic brain injury in the mouse, which, in combination with behavioral and histological methods, has potential for elucidating underlying mechanisms of neurodegeneration using genetically altered animals. Previously, we have demonstrated impaired spatial learning in a water maze task following CCI injury at a moderate level. There are many difficulties associated with this task, however, such as stress, physical demand, and the multiple trials over days required for satisfactory training. As a potential alternative to the water maze, we adapted the Barnes circular maze to our mouse model and assessed spatial/nonspatial learning following injury. Mice were trained to locate a dark tunnel, hidden beneath one of 40 holes positioned around the perimeter of a large, flat, plastic disk, brightly illuminated by four overhead halogen lamps. Sham-operated animals rapidly acquired this task, exhibiting reduced latency to find the tunnel and a more efficient search strategy as compared with injured mice. This difference was not due to visuomotor deficits, as all mice performed equally well in a cued version of the same task. These results demonstrate spatial learning impairment following CCI injury in a task that offers an efficient alternative to the water maze.
Adaptation of the circular platform spatial memory task for mice: use in detecting cognitive impairment in the APP(SW) transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.
A methodology is described for use of a 16-hole circular platform task to test spatial memory in mice. Both bright light and a fan were used to motivate mice to escape the platform surface through a single hole containing an attached escape box. For each daily trial, three correlated measures (escape latency, number of errors, and error rating) comprehensively evaluated cognitive performance. In an initial study, the 'spatial' nature of this task was demonstrated by the much poorer performance of non-transgenic mice when visual cues are removed. Behavioral sensitivity of the circular platform task was then shown through its ability to discern cognitive impairment in 7-month-old transgenic mice, carrying the mutant APP(SW) gene for early-onset Alzheimer's disease in humans, from non-transgenic litter-mates. Since there are currently only a few tasks available to definitively test cognitive performance in mice, the circular platform task offers a versatile, multiple-measure option with numerous advantages. Particularly in view of the increasing number of genetically manipulated mouse models being produced, the circular platform task should be most useful in providing a sensitive evaluation of cognition in mice.
Cognitive deficits develop 1month after diffuse brain injury and are exaggerated by microglia-associated reactivity to peripheral immune challenge.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits immediate neuroinflammatory events that contribute to acute cognitive, motor, and affective disturbance. Despite resolution of these acute complications, significant neuropsychiatric and cognitive issues can develop and progress after TBI. We and others have provided novel evidence that these complications are potentiated by repeated injuries, immune challenges and stressors. A key component to this may be increased sensitization or priming of glia after TBI. Therefore, our objectives were to determine the degree to which cognitive deterioration occurred after diffuse TBI (moderate midline fluid percussion injury) and ascertain if glial reactivity induced by an acute immune challenge potentiated cognitive decline 30 days post injury (dpi). In post-recovery assessments, hippocampal-dependent learning and memory recall were normal 7 dpi, but anterograde learning was impaired by 30 dpi. Examination of mRNA and morphological profiles of glia 30 dpi indicated a low but persistent level of inflammation with elevated expression of GFAP and IL-1β in astrocytes and MHCII and IL-1β in microglia. Moreover, an acute immune challenge 30 dpi robustly interrupted memory consolidation specifically in TBI mice. These deficits were associated with exaggerated microglia-mediated inflammation with amplified (IL-1β, CCL2, TNFα) and prolonged (TNFα) cytokine/chemokine expression, and a marked reactive morphological profile of microglia in the CA3 of the hippocampus. Collectively, these data indicate that microglia remain sensitized 30 dpi after moderate TBI and a secondary inflammatory challenge elicits robust microglial reactivity that augments cognitive decline.Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor in development of neuropsychiatric problems long after injury, negatively affecting quality of life. Mounting evidence indicates that inflammatory processes worsen with time after a brain injury and are likely mediated by glia. Here, we show that primed microglia and astrocytes developed in mice 1 month following moderate diffuse TBI, coinciding with cognitive deficits that were not initially evident after injury. Additionally, TBI-induced glial priming may adversely affect the ability of glia to appropriately respond to immune challenges, which occur regularly across the lifespan. Indeed, we show that an acute immune challenge augmented microglial reactivity and cognitive deficits. This idea may provide new avenues of clinical assessments and treatments following TBI.
Impairment of spatial but not contextual memory in CaMKII mutant mice with a selective loss of hippocampal LTP in the range of the theta frequency.
We assessed hippocampal-dependent memory in mice with a Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII generated by the introduction of an aspartate at amino acid 286. The CaMKII-Asp-286 mice show normal LTP at high frequency stimulation, but in the 5-10 Hz range, they show a shift in the frequency-response curve favoring LTD. This range of frequencies is similar to the theta rhythm, which is associated with exploration in rodents. Using the Barnes maze to assess spatial memory, we found the transgenic mice could not learn to navigate to a specific location using spatial cues. In contrast, one line of transgenic mice performed normally in contextual fear conditioning, a task that is also hippocampal dependent. This dissociation between spatial and contextual memory suggests that even though both require the hippocampus, they may be mediated by different synaptic mechanisms.
Value of water mazes for assessing spatial and egocentric learning and memory in rodent basic research and regulatory studies.